Detailed explanation of the cost of the hottest di

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Detailed explanation of the cost of distributed photovoltaic power stations

someone asked why the cost quotation range of distributed photovoltaic power stations in the market now ranges from 5 yuan/watt to 9 yuan/watt. What price is normal? Today, I will dissect the composition and cost of photovoltaic power stations with you, so that you can know well when purchasing photovoltaic power station equipment and selecting installation service providers

first briefly introduce what will be involved in a distributed photovoltaic power station and the corresponding price:

1. Photovoltaic modules

photovoltaic modules are the core components of photovoltaic power stations. The power generation efficiency and service life of modules are related to the income after the completion of the power station, and the price also accounts for more than 50% of the total price of the power station. Therefore, the purchase of photovoltaic modules is the focus of power station construction. However, in the production process of photovoltaic modules, in order to ensure the power generation performance of customers, it increased by US $0.240 per ton (1501 80000 tons) compared with yesterday; The ocean freight from Western Australia to China is $9.877/ton. Generally, strict inspection will be carried out when leaving the factory. All components with poor consistency or some defects will be treated as substandard products, that is, each manufacturer will produce a certain number of substandard products (class B components) in the production process. This class B component has problems in terms of quality, and the natural power generation cannot be compared with class a components; Secondly, due to defects, the subsequent power and attenuation rate can not be guaranteed to meet national regulations. Most importantly, this kind of components can not be guaranteed to have a service life of 25 years at all. Some poor installation service providers use low-quality degraded components, which can greatly reduce the cost of the power station, at the cost of the owner's income can not be guaranteed

according to the data of PV infolind, the module price of first-line manufacturers in the market at present: the price of 270W polycrystalline photovoltaic module is 2 75 yuan/watt; The price of single crystal components above 280W is 2 80 yuan/watt; The price of CIGS components varies from yuan/watt; Hit components are priced at 3 8 yuan/watt. Of course, at present, the price of components in the market fluctuates greatly, and the price has a downward trend in the recent week, with an average price of about 2.63 yuan/watt. In addition, the specific purchase price will depend on the brand of components, component power and project scale. In fact, taking into account the factors of declining subsidies, it is forced to reduce the cost and increase efficiency of components. At present, it is expected that the components will be reduced to less than 2.5 yuan/watt around 630. After 630, with the significant reduction of ground power stations and the significant release of new silicon materials and component capacity, there will be a significant trend of component price reduction. It is expected that the component price will drop to 2% by the end of the year 3 yuan/watt. Of course, when the purchase volume of users is small, the single watt price of components will rise by 0 5 yuan/watt

2. Inverter

according to the use of inverter in photovoltaic power generation system, it can be divided into independent power supply and parallel use. At present, the photovoltaic system generally adopts the parallel mode. The inverter converts the DC generated by photovoltaic into AC and sends the power into electricity. Inverter is the key equipment of power conversion, so the selection and purchase of inverter have a great impact on the stable operation of the system

at present, the price of 500kw-1mw centralized inverter is about 0 25 yuan/watt (centralized inverter is rarely used in distributed projects), and kW series inverter is at 0 38 yuan/watt, while the micro inverse is above 0.8 yuan/watt. For, the price of kW household photovoltaic inverter introduced by major inverter manufacturers is about 0 8 yuan/watt. In addition, major inverter manufacturers began to use power optimizers, but due to cost problems, power optimizers are generally used more in foreign projects

3. Photovoltaic bracket

solar photovoltaic bracket is a special bracket designed for placing, installing and fixing solar panels in solar photovoltaic power generation system. General materials include aluminum alloy (such as anodizing on the surface of al6005-t5), carbon steel and stainless steel (such as stainless steel 304), galvanized parts (such as Q235 hot-dip galvanizing), etc. Generally speaking, photovoltaic supports need to meet: 1) load requirements of wind load, snow load and earthquake requirements; 2) The design arrangement and spacing should be combined with the local sunshine conditions; 3) It will not rust for 10 years, its rigidity will not be reduced for 20 years, and it still has certain quality requirements for structural stability for 25 years

according to experience, the price of photovoltaic supports in the current market is 0 45 yuan/watt, which fluctuates according to the material and the material price at that time. For example, hot-dip galvanizing recently, because the hot-dip galvanizing manufacturer in Tianjin stopped production, the market was in short supply, resulting in soaring prices, which increased by about 0.0 to achieve a wide range of conditioning of the experimental speed Cost of 06 yuan/watt. Considering the rise of steel price and the improvement of environmental protection requirements, the price of hot-dip galvanizing and other supports may rise

4. Photovoltaic combiner box

in the solar photovoltaic power generation system, in order to reduce the connection between the solar photovoltaic cell array and the inverter, the user can connect a certain number of photovoltaic cells with the same specification in series to form a photovoltaic series, and then connect several photovoltaic Series in parallel to the series of photovoltaic combiner lightning protection box. After converging in the photovoltaic lightning protection combiner box, it is output through the DC circuit breaker, It is used together with photovoltaic inverter to form a complete photovoltaic power generation system and realize the integration with the municipal power supply. In addition, combiner boxes include AC combiner boxes and DC combiner boxes, which are configured according to the needs of project design. At present, the price of combiner boxes in the market is about 0.05 yuan/watt -0.12 yuan/watt

5. Photovoltaic DC/AC cable

in solar photovoltaic power generation 1 First of all, the cables used in the low-voltage DC transmission part of the force sensor electrical system of the tension machine have different requirements for the connection of different parts because of different operating environment and technical requirements. The overall factors to be considered are: the insulation performance, heat resistance and flame retardancy, aging performance and wire diameter specification of the cable. DC cables are mostly laid outdoors and need moisture-proof, sun protection, cold protection, UV protection, etc. Therefore, DC cables in distributed photovoltaic systems generally choose photovoltaic certified special cables. Considering the output current of DC connectors and photovoltaic modules, the commonly used photovoltaic DC cables are pv1-f 1*4m ㎡;. AC cables are mainly used from the AC side of the inverter to the AC combiner box or AC combiner cabinet. The AC cables installed outdoors need to consider moisture-proof, sun proof, cold proof, UV protection, and long-distance laying. Generally, YJV cables are selected; For AC cables installed indoors, fire prevention, rat and ant prevention should be considered

at present, the price of qualified photovoltaic DC cables in the market changes according to the sectional area and purchase volume, 2% of 4.0 m ㎡ 1 yuan/meter, 6.0 m ㎡ is about 4 6 yuan/meter. In addition, the cost of cables is related to the design of the power station, and the optimized component layout can save the use of DC cables. AC load cables can be selected and used according to the requirements of general power cable selection. Generally speaking, the cost of photovoltaic cable is about 0 25/watt. If it exceeds too much, it may be necessary to check whether the design is reasonable or whether special cables are used for special reasons

6. Fixture/cement foundation

generally speaking, photovoltaic fixtures are mostly used for color steel tile roofs, while cement foundation is used for concrete flat roofs. At present, the cost of fixtures in the market is about 0 About 05 yuan/watt, the cost of cement pier will be slightly higher, about 0 About 15 yuan/watt

7. Project design

photovoltaic project design includes photovoltaic power station design and parallel access design. The rationality of the project design is not only related to the construction cost of the power station, but also determines the power generation efficiency of the power station to a great extent. For example, whether the array spacing is reasonable and whether there will be occlusion; Whether the power station is optimized according to the owner's power consumption, whether the power generation is optimized in winter or summer, or whether the optimization design is based on the annual maximum power generation; Arrangement of components; How to route the cable; Consolidation mode; Electrical primary and secondary access design, etc. Generally speaking, large-scale distributed projects require the design institute to design the project, and the design cost ranges from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, which is specifically related to the scale of the power station. Distributed projects for users are generally designed by EPC. Generally speaking, the design cost is about 0 2 yuan/watt

8. Installation cost

the installation cost of photovoltaic power station, as the name suggests, is the labor cost of installation, which is determined by the local wage level and the special types of work required by the complexity of the project. According to general experience, the labor cost of power station construction and installation is about 0 7 yuan/watt

9. Engineering insurance

in order to protect the accidents and risks that may occur in the construction of photovoltaic power stations, construction personnel and project construction projects, EPC will generally purchase engineering insurance, and the insurance price is related to the insured content and scale. Generally, the cost is about 0 05 yuan/watt

10. System commissioning

in order to connect the photovoltaic system to electricity and operate smoothly, larger industrial and commercial distributed photovoltaic projects will carry out system commissioning to test whether the photovoltaic system can operate smoothly. Generally, professional equipment personnel and electrical personnel are required for assistance, and the cost of this part is about 0 Between 12 yuan/watt

11. Monitoring system

the photovoltaic power generation monitoring system can monitor and control the battery array, combiner box, inverter, AC and DC distribution cabinet, solar tracking control system and other equipment in the solar photovoltaic power station in real time, and quickly master the operation of the power station through various types of charts and data. Its friendly user interface, powerful analysis function The perfect fault alarm ensures the complete reliable and stable operation of the solar photovoltaic power generation system. In addition to the necessary monitoring equipment required by electricity, the owner can choose to install the monitoring equipment of the power station, such as irradiator, data collector, video monitoring, etc. The price of this part fluctuates greatly according to the function selected by the user, the manufacturer of the equipment and the scale of the project. The price of this part is about 0 3 yuan/watt

12. For water and electricity during the construction of other

projects, as well as other measure costs, project unforeseen costs, etc., the general cost is about 0 1 yuan/watt

although the distributed photovoltaic installation seems simple, it actually involves many aspects. In order to facilitate your future query, these projects and the current cost estimates are roughly listed in the following table for your reference only. Of course, this price is only the mainstream average price in the current market. After 630, rabbit king expects the component price to decline significantly, while the price of other products has relatively little room for decline. In addition, labor costs may gradually increase

Table 1: cost of industrial and commercial distributed photovoltaic power station project

in addition, it is emphasized here that the prices given in this paper are the cost prices of industrial and commercial distributed projects! Cost price! Cost price! Important things are to be repeated for 3 times. The cost of the actual power station should also include the reasonable profit of EPC. This article is definitely not written to compress the profit space of EPC, but to inform you of the content and general cost information involved in distributed photovoltaic power stations. In order to avoid being confused by poor installation service providers

finally, I'd like to send you a statistical chart of the failure causes of photovoltaic power stations according to TUV Rheinland statistics. When owners are greedy, don't forget the risks brought by product quality to your income expectations


when investing in power stations, everyone always hopes that the lower the price, the better. However, the price at which chaotic experimental data files can be saved in the way that access often uses databases makes the market muddy

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